Computational thinking in early years – how the Co-Make project is bringing together educators and children from across Europe

How can we support very young children to develop computational thinking? How are educators doing it already, across Europe, and could it be done better?

That’s the exciting challenge being explored by Co-Make, an Erasmus+ project bringing together educators and children from the UK, Netherlands, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. London CLC is one of the partners and we’re working with Stockwell Primary School as the UK participants in the project.

As a group we’re looking at how we can build what is already existing good practice in early years foundation stage (EYFS) or early childhood education (ECE) supporting the development of computational thinking: pattern, sequencing, instructions, problem-solving, planning. It’s most definitely not about imposing technology or attempting any kind of formal computing curriculum activity. 

Instead, this project is all about enhancing digital competence through inclusive, collaborative, computational thinking. We know that the use of technology with young children is sometimes more effective when it’s guided by an adult rather than self-guided and spontaneous, though there’s a place for that too, so what’s the best way to plan for this in your practice? The intention is that the project partners will promote digital skills and competences among teachers, educators and students throughout Europe by sharing the best practices from all countries and by broadening all of our understanding of computational thinking. And this will be based on our practical experiences in classrooms and early years settings.

So, how are we going about it?


One of the most exciting elements of the project is the local Learnathons. These involve children in each of the partner schools tackling a common challenge planned beforehand, and sharing their computational thinking approaches and results with the other schools, encouraging collaboration and learning from each other in a fun way. Each group we know is going to come up with their own version.

The stage is already set for the first learnathon, First Contact.

“The child (girl or boy) from the logo and the robot (girl, boy, it) have just met (look at the logo!) How can they communicate and begin to understand each other? Please ask the children to help solve the problem – what are their ideas?”

The children need to help the characters communicate by using, for example, symbols, music/rhythm, movements or patterns and in a way that includes and encourages computational thinking, such as sequence, decomposing, debugging and giving instructions.

Each school captures their story by video, photos or drawings, or using puppets or toys, and sets a challenge for the other schools. We have a deadline so we eagerly anticipate the results.

There will be five learnathons in total across the project, and it’s quite likely that they will include some use of equipment that all schools can gain access to such as BeeBots or similar toys and tablets or iPads. But we want to emphasise that technology and screens don’t necessarily have to be the starting point. We hope that each of the learnathons will build on and learn from the experiences of the others. Co-Make itself is in some ways building on the experience of our earlier Co-Think project, where the upcoming Tate Exchange day will include participation from the Co-Think partner schools as the project draws to its final phase.

Learning from each other

One of the key ways the educators are sharing good practice is through visits to the different countries in the project in order to gain a better understanding and appreciation of how computational thinking is developed in EYFS in context ie in a way relevant to each partner organisation’s philosophy and approach. 

A short visit to Middlefart in Denmark in October 2019 saw the project start with the coordinators meeting each other and learning more through practical workshops about the maker and design thinking approach. This was followed by a packed trip to the Netherlands in December where we were able to visit to Den Haag’s Cosmicus School, which has a focus on global citizenship and where all children work from a tablet from age seven, and Snijders School, among others. 

At Snijders we learned that there is a focus on independence with children planning their own schedules and choosing which workshops they do. Every child has their own digital portfolio using and the focus is on this as a record of progress rather than grades. There is also an emphasis on personal qualities, such as being good at comforting others, with the children’s friends having an input into what they think are each other’s particular qualities. Teachers tend not to use schemes and text books other than in maths.

During the joint partner and planning sessions we also heard from Felienne Hermans, associate professor at Leiden University and head of the Programming Education Research Lab (PERL), on programming with young children. She argues that since children live in a world that is informed by software, if we want to raise healthy and informed citizens then they need to understand the role that algorithms and software play in our society. 

She makes a case for supporting educators to teach children programming in two ways:  direct instruction – explaining and practising in small steps – and showing that it can be used in many different areas and is not just for those who love programming for the sake of it. 

Watch this great five-minute YouTube for an overview of her approach


And, of course, as well as the practical and experiential aspects, Co-Make is also based on solid theoretical groundwork. The project draws on the work of some respected theorists. These include:

Mitch Resnick, LEGO Papert professor of learning research, director of the Okawa Center, and director of the Lifelong Kindergarten group at the MIT Media Lab. In his 2017 book Lifelong Kindergarten Resnick identifies how we can draw on the educational philosophy of the kindergarten phase to provide children with opportunities to work on projects, based on their passions, in collaboration with peers, in a playful spirit and help them prepare for a world where creative thinking is more important than ever before. It’s his team that has developed the phenomenally successful Scratch platform and more recently Scratch Jr which is now available free for multiple platforms and suitable for younger children to enjoy.

We also draw on the work of Nathan Holbert, assistant professor in the Department

of Mathematics, Science, and Technology at Columbia University, in developing Maker education with very young children to support them to create personally meaningful objects including digital artefacts.

Finally, we’re using the frameworks developed by Professor Marina Umaschi at the Developmental Technologies Research Group at Tufts University which aims to understand how new technologies that engage in coding, robotics and making can play a positive role in children’s development and learning.

What next?

As a group we’re developing the Co-Make website in order to share our findings. It’s at an early stage but, in the months to come, it will be the project repository to report on the outcomes of our work. We’ll also be making more informal links to allow the schools to collaborate directly with each other, using the Erasmus+ eTwinning web platform which has been developed for this purpose. Of course, we have to be mindful of GDPR and each country’s best practice with regard to online safety. Please look out for updates at our conferences, through this blog and the London CLC newsletter as the project progresses.

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Upcoming CPD

Summer primary school computing conference
Summer primary school computing conference

This event will build upon the Autumn computing conference by inviting subject leaders to reflect on their year in the role, sharing their successes and challenges. It will also introduce new ideas, tools and approaches through talks and practical activities led by members of the CLC team, with opportunities for attendees to share their own expertise and experience. Over the course of the conference activities will touch on the three main areas of the computing curriculum: computer science, digital literacy and information technology. We will also feature advice and examples illustrating the use of technology to support blended learning.

- 15:30
Computing subject leaders, Teachers...
Creative Arts, Digital and children – CLC meets More Than Robots online
Creative Arts, Digital and children - CLC meets More Than Robots online

Combining forces for the first time, the Connected Learning Centre and More Than Robots have created a session for teachers, youth organisations, researchers and policymakers interested in the digital provision of creative arts for primary aged pupils.


The Play Observatory - Prof. John Potter

“In their own words”: Westminster Abbey & CLC digital projects - Sian Shaw

Building (and maintaining) a city-wide primary arts curriculum to raise attainment - Kate Fellows

More to be added soon

This interactive and inclusive meet up will include inspiring examples of how technology can be used to support learning in music, visual art and drama in person and online at home drawing on our experiences as Tate Exchange associates and our partnership work with a range of cultural institutions.

This informal event is an opportunity to discuss real examples of what does/doesn’t work, meet colleagues from other sectors working on similar challenges and share useful research, news or updates

The morning will include case study presentations (details below) followed by a Q&A. There will also be an opportunity for a rapid sharing round for launches, project updates or requests for help and a short break to avoid zoom brain drain.

- 11:30
KS1, KS2
Subject leaders, Teachers...

Upcoming Special projects

The News Project
- 14:25

Special project in collaboration with First News Education

For a third year, building on two successful previous projects, we are once again partnering with the children’s newspaper First News, fellow member of the national Making Sense of Media and News Literacy networks. This special project with a literacy, PSHE and citizenship, as well as computing focus, highlights our specialist interest in this important aspect of digital and critical literacy.

The News Project will enable participating classes from year 5 to immerse themselves in news and current affairs using First News and the Bett award-winning First News iHUB, which will be provided free of charge during the school-based part of the project over a six week period. Under the guidance of their teacher, pupils will be supported in their development as a community of fully informed news readers. Classes will test their new critical skills and knowledge in the culminating virtual celebration event which will include a news competition and team-based critical literacy and editorial activities. After the event, schools will be able to use the resources from the day in their school.

The project will launch with an introductory CPD session for teachers to set the context, demonstrate resources and to plan for the school-based activities. 

Initial CPD session - Thursday 21st October 4pm-5.00pm. 

Project work undertaken in school - October and November.

Special event - Thursday 25th November 9.30am-2.45pm.

The Garden Museum

The CLC is once again partnering with the Garden Museum to offer a partnership project for KS1 pupils (primarily suited to Yr2). Located next to Lambeth Palace on the bank of the Thames, the museum has an inspiring collection that provides the ideal stimulus for young learners to explore the world around them.

Pupils will use technology alongside the museum’s collection to explore the wonderful world of seeds.

  • How are they planted?
  • How do they spread?
  • What is inside them?

 The Garden Museum has a large collection of seeds and tools that pupils will engage with.

These half-day sessions will take place at the Garden Museum.

There is a limited number of dates available, so please book early to avoid disappointment.

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